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Saturday, January 16, 2010

Autism: The ECLIPSE Model

The ECLIPSE Model:
Building Global Skills That Improve Social and Behavioral Functioning

Sherry A. Moyer

NHS Human Services

Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

smoyer@nhsonline.org

What Is The ECLIPSE Model?

* The goal of this curriculum is to foster growth and development of GLOBAL skills that are essential to improved behavioral and adaptive functioning as well as social competence. The ECLIPSE Model is based on profiles of known skill deficits from recent and relevant literature!

What Are Global Skills?

* Global processes are those that contribute to cognitive development in several domains. (Kail, 2004)

Executive Function Skills

Goal Oriented Behaviors

Flexibility/Shift

Self-Regulation

Abstract Thinking

Causal Attribution

Processing Speed

Problem Solving


Why Target Global Skills?

* Functional global skills allow us to improve our:
o Academic achievement
o Employment performance
o Social competence
o Independent Living Skills
o Adaptive Skills

Guiding Principles of ECLIPSE

* Control Versus Authority
* The X + 10 Relevance Rule
* Global Skills are EVERYTHING
* You Cannot Expect Another Person to Demonstrate Desired Skills Consistently Without an Opportunity to LEARN FIRST!

Curriculum Components

* Attribution Retraining
* Cognitive Skills
o Shift/Flexibility and Abstract thinking
* Social Skills
o Theory of Mind and Hidden Curriculum
* Sensory Awareness
* Self-Regulation and Modulation of Behaviors
* Continuous, Ongoing, Perpetual and Never Ending Activities

Each Curriculum
Component Includes…

* An explanation of the skill
* Real life examples
* Impact of development of other skills
* Measurable goals for learning
* Lesson plans
* Instructions for data collection

Let’s Look At An Example…

Attribution

* A Brief Explanation: Attribution is our ability to accurately assign causation to events or motivation to another person’s thoughts, words, or deeds.

It is our ability to connect the dots between cause and effect!


Attribution Retraining

* Attribution retraining is all about changing the way people assess their circumstances so that there is a sense of hope that they can take control and improve the situation.

I’ll never get this light bulb thing right

Shawn

* Situation
o Does well in school, except math
o His attribution: nothing he can do about it, he has always been that way.

* Analysis
o Negative attribution causing feelings of hopelessness
o No motivation to take control and improve the circumstances.

On The Other Hand…

* Situation
o Does well in school, except math
o His attribution: If I asked for help or spent more time studying maybe I could get better at math.

* Analysis
o Positive attribution causing feelings of hopefulness.
o Some motivation to take control and improve the circumstances.

Impact On
Development of Other Skills

* Attribution is directly connected to Theory of Mind. If you are not able to get inside another person’s head to gauge their thoughts and emotions, you will not be able to understand why the other person said or did what they did.
* Theory of Mind is the “What are they thinking, doing or feeling?”
* Attribution is the “Why are they thinking, doing or feeling?”

Measurable Goals for Learning

* Dina will learn to more accurately assess her circumstances using the three parameters of attribution retraining.
* Kevin will improve his problem solving skills through the use of attribution retraining.
* Zoe will be able to demonstrate the relationship between attribution retraining and social problem solving and self-regulation.

Lesson Plans

* Each lesson plan includes:
o Objective
o Required materials
o Required prep time
o Required activity time
o Embed factor
o Steps for completion of lesson
o Data collection or measuring success!

Creating a Comprehensive Classroom
or Group Environment

A Few Things To Remember…

* The targeted skills in the ECLIPSE Model are critical to successful human functioning and NOT just for those with ASD.
* The curriculum is meant to support development of a class or group culture.
* The ECLIPSE Model is designed to become part of the fabric of the student’s day.
* Easily adapted for home or clinical use to support generalization.

Using the ECLIPSE Model to Support IEP or Treatment Plan Development

* Results from standardized assessments can be used to guide goal selection
o Specifically behavior goals or behavior plans.
o Will also support academic goals for different types of writing.
* Can also contribute to transition process
o Especially for foundation skills associated with volunteer or vocational placements and independent living.

Use the MAGIC STATEMENTS!

* What can I do to help you make things better?
* Do you need a little more to answer/finish what you were doing?
* I will help you figure this out when you are calm enough to problem solve.
* I understand that you are upset.
* You have a right to your feelings.

Continuous, Ongoing, Perpetual and NEVER Ending Activities!

* Independence Journals
* Reality Checks
* Self-Awareness Builders
* Strategic Bombs

ECLIPSE Data Collection Measures

* Behavior Indicator Sheet
* Universal Goal Tracking: Teacher and Student
* Student Surveys
* Daily Data Collection Sheets
* Teacher Checklist
* Program Audit Checklist
* Implementation Record

The ECLIPSE Model Pilot Study

* 13 students who attend a specialized private school for students whose primary diagnosis is an Autism Spectrum Disorder.
* All participants were diagnosed with either Asperger Disorder or PDD NOS.
* Average age is 13.69 years
* Average FS IQ of 10 students with
available is 81.8.

The ECLIPSE Model Pilot Study

* Standardized pre and post assessments include:
o Behavior Assessment System for Children Second Edition or BASC 2 Parent Rating (Reynolds, C. and Kamphaus, R.W., 2004)
o Children’s Attibutional Style Questionnaire or CASQ (Kaslow, Tanenbaum, Seligman, Abramson, & Alloy, 1995).
o Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function or BRIEF Parent and Teacher Rating (Gioia, G. Isquith, P., Guy, S., and Kenworthy, L. 2000 )

The ECLIPSE Model Pilot Study

* Pilot study was conducted during 10 week period in spring of 2008.
* Teachers and Aides received 12 hours of training on the ECLIPSE Model curriculum prior to pilot.
* Lessons focused primarily on self-regulation, attribution retraining, abstract thinking and modulation of behaviors.
* All lessons were conducted by the classroom teacher in the classroom environment as a full group.

The Results!!!

* There was a statistically significant shift in the positive composite and hopefulness scores of the CASQ! (n=13)
o Significant increase in the Positive Composite score of p=.009. 10 of 13 students improved their positive attribution scores!
o Significant increase in the Hopefulness Composite score with p=.045. 9 of 13 students improved their measure of hopefulness!


* BASC Results (n=8)
o 62.5% of students experienced improvements in scores for Depression and Aggression subtests as well as Adaptive Composite scores!
o 50% of students experienced improvement in scores for Activities of Daily Living, Anxiety and Conduct Problems subtests!
o 37.5% of students experienced improvements in scores for Withdrawal and Social Skills subtests!

The Results!!!

* BRIEF Results (Parent Rating n=9)
o 55.6 % of students experienced improvement in scores for Shift and Inhibit subtests!
o 44.5% experienced improvement in scores for Emotional Control subtest!

The Results!!!

* BRIEF Results (Teacher Rating n=13)
o 46.2% of students experienced improvement in scores for Inhibition and Emotional Control subtests!
o 23.1% of students experienced improvement in scores for the Shift subtest!

The Results!!!

In Summary…

* Encouraging results despite the small sample size and short time frame!
* Exemplifies the potential for service providers to successfully generate and participate in applied research by translating novel theories into operational curriculum.
* Opens a wide range of future research questions to determine the effects of improved global skills on other areas of functioning.

References

* American Psychiatric Association, (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (4th Edition, Text Revision, 80-84). Washington, Dc: American Psychiatric Association.
* Baron-Cohen, S., (1995). The development of theory of mind: Where would we be without the intentional stance? In Developmental Principles and Clinical Issues in Psychology and Child Psychiatry. Ed. Rutter, M. and Hay, D.. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
* Cavell, A., (1990). Social Adjustment, Social Performance, and Social Skills: a Tri-Component Model of Social Competence. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, pgs. 111-122.
* Clark, C., Prior, M., & Kinsella, G. (2002) The relationship between executive function abilities, adaptive behavior and academic achievement in children with externalizing behaviour problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 785-796.
* Gioia, G. Isquith, P., Guy, S., and Kenworthy, L. (2000 ). Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning. Psychological Assessments, Inc. Lutz, FL.
* Kail., R., (2004). Cognitive Development Includes Global and Domain-Specific Processes. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50, pgs. 445-452.
* Kaslow, N. J., Tanenbaum, R. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1978). The KASTAN-R: A Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (KASTAN-R-CASQ). Unpublished manuscript, University of Pennsylvania, Department of Psychology, Philadelphia.
* Lee, H.J. and Park, H.R., (2007). An Integrated Review on the Adaptive Behavior of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome. Remedial and Special Education, 28, pgs 132-145.
* Martin, J., Mithaug, D., Cox, P., Peterson, L., Van Dycke, J., and Cash, M., (2003). Increasing Self-Determination: Teaching Students to Plan, Work, Evaluate, and Adjust. Exceptional Children, Vol. 69, pg. 431.

References
* Mithaug, D., Agran M., Martin, J., and Wehmeyer, M., (2003). Determined Learning Theory: Construction, Verification, and Evaluation. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
* Reynolds, C. and Kamphaus, R.W., (2004). Behavior Assessment Scales for Children, 2nd Edition. Pearson Assessments, Bloomington, MN.
* Seligman, M. E. P., Peterson, C., Kaslow, N. J., Tannenbaum, R.L., Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (1984). Attributional style and depressive symptoms among children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 235-238.
* Stecker, P., Whinnery, K., and Fuchs, L., (1996). Self-Recording During Unsupervised Academic Activity: Effects on Time Spent Out of Class, Exceptionality, Vol. 6, pgs. 133-147.

References


Thank you for having me!!!

Sherry A. Moyer

NHS Human Services

Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

smoyer@nhsonline.org


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